Friday, December 6, 2019

Contracts Law Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball †

Question: Discuss about the Contracts Law Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball. Answer: Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co Business may be intending to use advertisements as invitations to treat. That is, inviting customers to come and open negotiations before concluding a contract. However, there is a need to take the form, factual context and the wording of these advertisements seriously. This paper will use the case of Carlill in analyzing how and when an advertisement will amount to an offer. I will also look at the significance of this case to Australian law. Summary of Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co This authority arose from Carbolic Smoke Ball Companys invention of a device that they claimed it could prevent influenza. They made an advertisement of their device in the newspaper affirming that they would pay 100 to anyone who contracted influenza having their devices. Users had to use the device thrice a day for 14 days. In the advertisement, the company stated that it had already deposited 1000 as a confirmation for their sincerity. Louisa Carlill contracted even after using the device as per the instructions. She brought a claim for a breach of the contract. To her favor, the court found the advertisement as a unilateral offer made to the entire world at large. The fact that the defendant had even deposited 1,00 affirmed that he was ready for any claim for breach of the contract. The court allowed the claim, and Carbolic company was liable for breach. Subsequent Impact of Carlill On Contracts Law In Australia And The Nature Of A Legally Binding Agreement The significance of this case inAustralian contract law and the nature of a binding agreement is seen in three distinct issues. The first one is the principles of unilateral contract. The second issue is the distinction between a promise and puff. Unilateral contracts happen where one party provides a promise while the other party proceeds to the performance (Barron, 2013). The bargain of this contract is completed by the performance of the promisee as requested by the promisor (Roberts, 2017). One example is where a person loses his wallet. Then the person states that he will pay $100 to whoever finds the wallet. There would be no need for the finder to communicate his entrance to the search. A finder just need to search for the wallet and bring it to the owner. Upon delivery, the finder becomes entitled to $100. One main relevance laid out by this authority regards acceptance of an offer. The original rule requires notification of acceptance to the promisor. This communication crea tes what thelaw calls the meeting of minds (Graw, Parker, Whitford, Sangkuhl Do, 2012). Thelaw makes acceptance a requirement to create a binding acceptance. This case brought a different development regarding the binding of agreements where notice of acceptance would not be necessary. Bowen LJ stated that there are some situations where the performance of acceptance would become a notification (Miles Dowler, 2013). The next development that this case enlightened on was the issue of promises and puffery. The concept of a "puff" that this case developed remained as a rule in marketing and advertising laws ever since (Khoury Yamouni, 2010). Lord Justice A L Smith noted the law regards advertisements as an invitation to treat but not an offer. However, that advertisement of the smokeball seemed more of a request for acceptance. The sincerity of this offer was even demonstrated by depositing the money at the bank. This was contrary to the rules guiding the use of pufferies. The principle laid the authority in cases where a mere puff can convert to an offer. Significance of Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co. Ltd in Australian Courts. The case of Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co. Ltd is significant to Australian courts in different ways. For one, this is a landmark decision that brought several rules regarding the formation of a contract as derived from the defense side. Legal issue The main issue before the court was to determine the position of the contract between Mrs. Carlill and the smoke Ball company. The court was dealing with these three questions. The first one was deciding a dispute as to the nature of this advertisement. Was it an offer or a form of an request to make an offer? Then if the court finds that the advertisement was an offer, it then had to decide whether the rules pertaining to the communication of acceptance applied to this contract. The second question that the court was dealing with was whether the parties had an intention for a legal bond. Lastly, the court had to conclude whether the claimant provided consideration for Smoke Ball companys promise of the reward. Decision The Court unanimously concluded that the advertisement suited an offer instead of an invitation. It was an offeror to all the world. There was no need for acceptance since the defendant had waived such requirement. The performance was the acceptance of this offer (Miles Dowler, 2013). Further, whether the claimant provided consideration or not was a question of the parties intent for a legal bond in their agreement. Firstly, the court considered that this was a commercial context. As a general rule, there is a presumption that parties in a commercial setting always have an intention to creating a legal bond. In this regard, the court took an objective approach to interpreting the agreement in the general public viewpoint (Gulati, 2011). The fact that Smoke Ball company had deposited 1000 pounds demonstrated their intention to be bound. Significance to Australian Courts This ruling presents what is now the advertisement rules where the advertisement amounts to a conditional offer instead of an invitation to treat. It also acts as the authority in the situations where the promisee waives the necessity of the communication of acceptance (Latimer, 2011). The authority sets that performance of particular conditions will constitute acceptance without necessarily informing the promisee. This case also acts as the authority where an agreement lacks consideration, yet the offeree suffered inconvenience following directions of the offeror. Lastly, the case demonstrates that there is a belief that there is always the parties projection for a legal relation whenever they are dealing within a business or commercial setting (Saprai, 2017). Nature of A Contract in The Light of Carlill V Carbolic Smoke Ball Co. Ltd The nature of this contract is a unilateral one. A unilateral contract is a form of a single-sided agreement. It is only one party that makes a promise with the intention of inducing the other to undertake a particular task (Graw, Parker, Whitford, Sangkuhl Do, 2012). Unlike bilateral contracts, the second party in a unilateral contract does not have a legal obligation to perform as per the terms of the contract. However, the performance of the second party and its compliance with the set conditions binds the first party into the agreement (Latimer, 2011). Another feature of the unilateral contract is that it does not require notification of acceptance. This dismisses the rule that acceptance of a contract must be timely as found in bilateral contracts since the offer is ongoing. Analysis of The relevant legal principle within this case were offer and acceptance, intention to creating a legal relation, and consideration. Issue as to Mere Puff The rule of law states that pufferies are statements of exaggerations which are not terms of an offer (Latimer, 2011). An example of a puffing statement was found in(Dimmock v Hallett,1866). While auctioning a piece of land, Dimmock stated that the land was very fertile and improbable. Hallett relied on this statement while buying the land. Later, she discovered that it was untrue. The court described the term as a mere puff, and such a term could not amount to legal repercussions. Compare this rationale with the case of (Smith v Land House Property Corp, 1885). The claimant bought a hotel from the defendant. The defendant had stated that the property was let to a most desirable' tenant. In fact, the defendant knew that the tenant was in arrears and approaching bankruptcy. This statement was held as a fact rather than a mere puff. I concur with the application of the same rationale in the case of Smoke Ball Co. The court did not accept that the company statement was a mere puff. The fact that the company had even deposited the money in the bank showed their sincerity. The court stated that a reasonable man would not have taken it as a puff. Issue as to Advertisement as Opposed to an Offer The general rule is that advertisements are not offers but an invitation to people asking them to come and make an offer (Bruce, 2011). An application of this authority was affirmed in (Fisher v Bell, 1961). The seller had displayed a flick knife and a ticket for sale behind it stating Ejector Knife4s. The police charged the seller with offering to sell the flick knife which was against the law. The court found the seller not guilty stating that goods on display are invitation to treat but not offers. The ruling of this case confirms the rationality established by the Smoke Ball Co's authority. Even though advertisements are an invitation to treat, the court found that this one unusual situation. Its characteristics fitted an offer as opposed to an invitation. Issue as to Vague or ambiguous It is a general principle in the law of contract that an offer which is a proposal must be certain in its terms (Lambiris Griffin, 2014). These terms should not be too vague. An application of this rule was affirmed in (Gurthing v Lynn,1831). Mr. Gurthing was buying a horse from Mr. Lynn for 63. Mr. Gurthing accepted the price with a 5 if the horse was lucky.' The court did not find a meaning of the term if the horse was lucky as it was too indefinite. The Smoke Ball Company's defense was relying on this rule in the ambiguity as to time limit. Though the defense argued that there was no time limit, the court found three possible time limits. The first was the continuity of the epidemic. The second one was treating influenza when someone had the smoke ball. Third, treating influenza at its reasonable time which the company had given as three weeks. Issue as to an Offer made to the World The rule that governs such issue regards unilateral contracts. The rule is that acceptance of unilateral contracts relies on the completion of the performance (Graw, 2012). A similar case in this nature was decided in (Harbhajan Lal v Harcharan Lal, 1924) In this case, a boy ran away from his father. The father issued a pamphlet offering to reward anyone who could find the boy with Rs. 55. The claimant got the boy and sent a telegram to his father. The court concluded that the pamphlet was an offer made to the public. Therefore, I agree with the judgment of the case of Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co which had set these principles. In Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co, the defendant was arguing that his contract was a 'contract with the world' which had no possibilities of amounting to a binding agreement. The court rebutted the argument stating that it was not a contract made to the entire world, but it was an offer made to the world. The court advised that anyone who comes out to perform the conditions completes the formation of a binding agreement. Issue as to Communication of Acceptance It is a rule that the offeree should communicate his acceptance to the offeror to make a binding agreement (Miles Dowler, 2013). However, the court noted that this rule could not nullify disputed agreement as such an offer did not require communication of acceptance. It only required fulfillment of the conditions. This rationale was later affirmed in the case of (Brogden v Metropolitan Railway Company, 1877) The claimant had been selling coal to the defendant for several years with an unwritten contract. The parties later contemplated having a formal agreement. The defendant posted the draft contract to the claimant. The claimant made some alteration and then sent it back to the defendant. The parties continued to trade until when the dispute arose. The court found that even though the claimant altered the document, his action complied with the unsigned terms. Issue as to Consideration Even though it is a requirement that an agreement must have an item of the bargain, an agreement lacking consideration is still enforceable if it was formed with the intention to create a legal relation (Miles Dowler, 2013). The general presumption is that parties to a commercial agreement intend to create a legal bond. On the other hand, there is a presumption that domestic and social agreements do not have such as intention (Gulati, 2011). For instance, in (Balfour v Balfour, 1919) the court decided that a domestic agreement is made without the intention to create a legal relation. A husband had promised a pay his wife as house allowance. Later the husband suspended the allowance after the separation. The court refused to enforce the agreement since it lacked the intention for a legal bond. This rationale is witnessed in the case of Carlill V Carbolic Smoke Ball Co when it rebutted the claim that there was no consideration as a requirement of an agreement. The court found that such a rule did could not apply in this agreement. The court affirmed that as far as there was an intention to create a legal relation, consideration was not a requirement. These rules as laid out in Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co formed a relevant case law in Australia courts. In overall, I agree with the position taken by this case in setting curing the ambiguity that such scenarios would have created in commercial practices. References Barron, M. (2013). Fundamentals of Business Law 7e Revised (7th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education Australia. Bruce, A. (2011). Consumer protection law in Australia. Chatswood, N.S.W.: LexisNexis Butterworths. Graw, S. (2012). An introduction to the law of contract (7th ed.). Rozelle, N.S.W.: Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Limited. Graw, S., Parker, D., Whitford, K., Sangkuhl, E., Do, C. (2012). Understanding business law (6th ed.). Chatswood, NSW: LexisNexis. Gulati, B. (2011). 'Intention to Create Legal Relations': A Contractual Necessity or An Illusory Concept. Beijing Law Review, 02(03), 127-133. Khoury, D., Yamouni, Y. (2010). Understanding contract law, 8th ed (8th ed.). Chatswood, NSW: LexisNexis Butterworths. Lambiris, M., Griffin, L. (2014). First principles of business law (7th ed.). Sydney: CCH Australia. Latimer, P. (2011). Australian business law 2012 (31st ed.). North Ryde, N.S.W.: CCH Australia. Miles, C., Dowler, W. (2013). A guide to business law (20th ed.). Rozelle, N.S.W.: Thomson Reuters. Roberts, M. (2017). Variation contracts in Australia and New Zealand: whither consideration?. Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal, 1-27. Saprai, P. (2017). Balfour V Balfour and the separation of contract and promise. Legal Studies, 37(3), 468-492. Balfour v Balfour [1919] 2 KB 571 Brogden v Metropolitan Railway [1877] 2 App. Cas. 666 Dimmock v Hallett (1866) LR 2 Ch App 21 Fisher v Bell [1961] 1 QB 394 Guthing v Lynn [1831] 2B AD 232 Harbhajan Lal v Harcharan Lal (AIR 1924 A11. 539) Smith v Land House Property Corp. [1885] 28 Ch D 7

Friday, November 29, 2019

General Character Traits of a Successful Entrepreneur free essay sample

Taking moderate risks is another characteristic of successful entrepreneurs. They dont fear to take risks. FEAR to take risks discourages initiative, brings about uncertainty of purpose, destroys ambition, kills enthusiasm, destroys good reasoning and stops you from taking action. Besides, there is nothing you can engage yourself in without any risks involved. *She takes personal responsibility for her own actions. The more responsibility you take, the more in control you are. And the freer you are, especially in your own mind, to make decisions and to do the things you want to do. Things go wrong when you run your own business. Most entrepreneurs go through crises with their businesses — and more than a few wind up with outright failures on their hands. But when you’re responsible for a business, you have to be able to keep calm in any situation. Any other reaction — whether you lose your temper or get flustered — compounds the problem. We will write a custom essay sample on General Character Traits of a Successful Entrepreneur or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Instead, a good entrepreneur must have the ability to keep his cool in an emergency or crisis. It may not make the problem easier to solve, but it certainly won’t make it harder. If an entrepreneur can handle failure without frustration or anger, he can move past it to find success. *She is self-confident Successful entrepreneurs dont depend on luck. They are able to visualize and they believe in the attainment of their desires at all cost. Ability to visualize and to have faith in the attainment of your desires is an important factor in building your self-confidence. *She likes to get concrete feedback on her own performance from others. Asking people around your business the feedback on your performance is one way you’ll know whether you need to improve your performance or stay the same. It is fine to have your critics to motivate yourself to improve your performance. *She is concerned with tasks and problems rather than with people. Successful entrepreneurs are problem solvers. They have the ability to identify specific problems of a given customer group, which require their products or services to be solved. As they solve their customers problems, they end up making money. Turning peoples problems into great opportunities is one of the characteristics of successful entrepreneurs. *She is very creative To succeed you have to be creative. All successful entrepreneurs think a lot differently from ordinary people. They see things other people have not yet mirrored and are able to introduce new things and new ways of doing things. *She is achievement- oriented All successful entrepreneurs are achievers. They do not give up when faced with a temporary defeat. They do not despair because they are highly motivated people. Whatever they put their hands and their minds on, they commit themselves to achieve it. Until they achieve it, they do not stop. Even after achieving it, they look forward to strengthen their achievements. Personal Entrepreneurial Competencies or (PECS) *Opportunity seeking Does things before asked or forced to by events Acts to extend the business into new areas, products or services Seizes unusual opportunities to start a new business, obtain financing, equipment, land work space or assistance *Persistence Takes action in the face of a significant obstacle Takes repeated actions or switches to an alternative strategy to meet a challenge or overcome an obstacle Takes personal responsibility for the performance necessary to achieve goals and objectives Commitment to work contact Makes a personal sacrifice or expends extraordinary effort to complete a job.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Informative Essay Topics

Informative Essay Topics An informative essay is a specific kind of writing that focuses on giving information that may be interesting and useful for readers. The audience wants to gain priceless knowledge from an informative essay sample. Hence, the student must make a considerable contribution to the development of the main idea. There are many topics and useful tips to start the process. First of all, the chosen subject must be focused and meaningful. Secondly, the key to the creation of a successful essay is personal interest as well as the performer’s desire to share insights. Possible Informative Essay Topics 1. The Opioid Epidemic in Florida In the U.S. media, the information about the opioid epidemic in Florida appears frequently. This topic is interesting to analyze in the social context. For example, a student may explore causes, scopes, and problems effects on society. Besides, the essay should present relevant data and discuss government reactions to the issue. â€Å"Opioid Overdose Deaths and Florida’s Crackdown on Pill Mills† by Kennedy-Hendricks et al. is a valuable source; articles from credible news agencies, such as NPR and others, may be helpful as well. 2. How Deaf People Talk with Emotion Unfortunately, deafness is a serious health disorder that affects the ability to hear any sounds. It can be interesting for people who are working in this area. It is important to include the studies of the psychologists that proved that deaf people express their emotions by gesticulation. The student can mention facial emotion as it is a key element for individuals with such disorders. This source â€Å"The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education† may be extremely helpful. 3. Women’s Rights in Saudi Arabia Women in Saudi Arabia are very limited in their actions. They are forbidden to do the most common things. The reason lies in cultural differences. This topic is interesting because the majority of women from other nations do not have such restrictions. The student may mention the reasons why Arabian women cannot participate in activism, and why they are not allowed to make any decisions without their husbands. Besides, it will be informative to write about reforms that were applied to Saudi Arabia women. The credible source â€Å"Torture, reform and womens rights in Saudi Arabia† by Hana Al-Khamri can be analyzed. 4. Anorexia Nervosa Cases among Young Girls Nowadays, it has become popular to follow the lifestyle of Instagram girls and models who are extremely slim. Anorexia Nervosa is a serious disorder connected with regular eating. This theme must be actual because Anorexia Nervosa is the problem of the modern generation. The student must note the main features of this chronic disorder. The NCBI informs that one teenager had a powerful fear of obesity and becoming fat that she began to suffer from anorexia. The writer can properly describe this case and do thorough research on Anorexia Nervosa by NCBI can be prompt. 5. The Pros and Cons of Teaching Students Three Languages in School Nowadays, the majority of schools have a difficult education system that includes several foreign languages. This topic can help people confirm or even change their opinion regarding the theme. The brain of school student cannot withstand a lot of mental stresses. It means that all moments must be properly analyzed in order not to harm a student. There are many studies about the Multilingual Childrens Association, and Veronica Hunt perfectly describes one of them. 6. Europe Architecture Style European architectural style can be recognized immediately, as it is extremely rational and practical. The studies that analyze this style may bring many positive emotions and aesthetic pleasure. This style was formed by the connection of particular places and time of their building. Also, the European style needs many decorations and the article â€Å"10 Key Architecture Styles And Their Defining Characteristics† can be a perfect source regarding this topic. 7. Is FBI Useful against Criminal Authorities? Of course, the FBI is a powerful organization, and it is useful against criminal authorities. Many people are deeply interested in the process of its work. The student may include many investigations and cases when the FBI successfully solved the crime. However, according to the mass shooting and kills in different corners of the world, it was proved that the FBI is not as influential as it was in the past. Unfortunately, many serious criminal cases were missed, and the FBI announced many false statements. The article â€Å"How the FBI Works† by Ed Grabianowski can be helpful for writing. 8. Diabetes and Its Treatment Diabetes is a common non-infectious chronic disease. The student must tell about the signs of the disease and its stages. For example, in the first stages, the patient may not feel serious ailment, except for increased fatigue, dry mouth, increased thirst, and appetite. Diabetes is a disease that requires long and persistent therapy. The student should focus on the techniques that are divided into three groups: taking medication, diet, and changing lifestyle. Ebenezer A. Nyenwe in her article â€Å"Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Evolving Strategies for the Treatment of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes† demonstrated priceless knowledge that can be helpful. 9. The Role of Libraries in the Digital Age This era is famous for digital availability. However, the role of libraries must not be neglected because libraries are the history and carry a historical moment. This informative essay topic is interesting and educational because very often, people compare books and online reading. Many years ago, society got intellectual resources from books sitting in libraries. Hence, they must be thankful for the priceless knowledge and places that help society made considerable technological improvements. The role of libraries in the digital age is highly appreciated even though libraries are not in great demand. The website Debating Europe, and the post â€Å"What Is the Role of Libraries in the Digital Age?† can be used during writing. 10. The Significance of Recycling Waste Materials The topic is interesting because the issue of recycling is of global importance. It is necessary to find all the new methods of replenishing or replacing consumed resources in order to preserve the ecological system. Besides, the importance of waste management has both environmental and resource-saving reasons. Many materials in nature are limited, and their time for their completion considerably exceeds the lifetimes of several generations of people. The accumulation of waste pollutes the environment. The website Ecomena can be helpful. 11. Hypnosis and Its Common Use Hypnosis is a temporary state of consciousness characterized by narrowing its volume and sharp focus on the content of suggestion, which is associated with a change in the function of individual control and self-consciousness. The topic is interesting enough as there are many exciting and fantastic information regarding it. The student may describe the state of hypnosis, and when it occurs. The article â€Å"What Is Hypnosis?† by Kendra Cherry may be used during writing. 12. Effective Stress Relief Techniques Oriental practitioners teach: If you want to get rid of sadness, move 27 things in the house. It is believed that it frees space for energy, which can smoothly slide in the right direction. Try this method, and make sure that it helps the brain to switch, get away from problems, and relax. The article â€Å"Best Stress Relievers for All Types of People† by Elizabeth Scott can be helpful as it includes priceless knowledge of the writer. 13. The Christian Attitude Towards Tattoo People need to determine whether they can ask God sincerely, with a clear conscience, to bless and use their actions for their purposes. Nowadays, this topic is widely discussed all over the world. The student may include information about important principles with regard to issues that the Bible does not specifically address. If there is the slightest doubt in human actions, it is better to abandon them in order to be God blessed. The article â€Å"Learn What the Bible Says about Tattoos† by Mary Fairchild brightly describes the main points about Christian attitude towards the tattoo. 14. About Procrastination and How to Overcome It Very often, people postpone important things. Also, they are unable to explain why they are doing this. After that, individuals are tormented by feelings of guilt because of the torn deadlines and the fact that someone has been let down again. The topic can be useful for students because it can improve their productivity. The author of the book â€Å"Beat Procrastination† was convinced of the perfidy of procrastination, comprehensively studied the problem, determined the causes of its occurrence, and suggested several simple and effective ways of dealing with it. 15. Pros and Cons of Gun Control Legislation The majority of the mass shootings in the USA are done with the legally bought weapon. The rate of violence will be increased due to gun control. At the same time, gun control legislation will make people sell the weapon on the black market. This theme can be interesting for many readers because there are many controversial moments. The article â€Å"Pros and Cons of Gun Control Laws in the US† by Paul Goodman can be helpful. 16. The Importance of Business Strategy Business strategy is an essential element of any developing organization. It allows the company to grow economically and concentrate on the real needs of the company. Business strategy is a powerful tool that helps an organization to reach long-term profits. The topic can be interesting as it covers a lot of important business information. The student may be focused on various business strategy, and find the most appropriate for oneself. Mendoza College of Business introduces the importance of a good business strategy for any organization. 17. About the Gaming Industry The gaming industry was actively developing after the technical revolution. The modern generation is interested in this area, and a student may use various resources while writing an essay. The development of computer games has become a whole industry with a lot of directions. Moreover, the number of fans of digital entertainment are millions. Besides, there are numerous competitions in cybersport that are held, and this trend continues to grow. The CEO of Cobx Gaming shared credible information in his article â€Å"The Future of Gaming Industry.† 18. The Role of Formal Education in Building a Successful Career This particular topic is extremely important for understanding among the current generation. Formal education is an essential attribute of a modern individual because it gives significant opportunities for building a successful career. Formal education gives a priceless basis required for future development including professional area. The student may use different studies that proved the importance of formal education. For instance, the article â€Å"Formal Education Is Important† by Ratna Komala Dewi can be helpful. 19. National Parks and Their Importance The majority of people deeply admire the beauty of nature. There are many fantastic National Parks all over the world. The student may describe the rare animals as well as plants that are protected there. Besides, National Parks provide them with complete safety. Both the water and air are absolutely clean there. The NPA website and â€Å"Why Are National Parks Important† post can be used while writing an essay. 20. About Starbucks Coffee Marketing Strategies Starbucks coffee is known all over the world. However, not everyone knows about the structure of this company. Hence, the student may include such information into an essay. Starbucks Company follows a mix of several marketing strategies. Such an approach makes Starbucks extremely successful and profitable. The mix of marketing aspects allows the company to experience the most appropriate managing way. The article â€Å"Marketing Strategy of Starbucks† by Hitesh Bhasin may be applied to this topic. Overall, informative essay educates readers on the described topic. The leading purpose of an informative essay is to present and respond to the main idea of the writing. As a rule, an informative essay can define the suggested term or show the significance of the raised idea. The structure of information essay is traditional; thus, a student should remember about an introduction, thesis, body paragraphs, and conclusion.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

In the Future, hierarchical management structures will be less Essay

In the Future, hierarchical management structures will be less evident. The management of intellectual capital will require ski - Essay Example 230). The tall structure has many levels and many people that are answerable to supervisors. The hierarchy is big such that there is loss of information during communication from the top down and vice versa through the structure. The advantage associated with this is the increase in coordination. Leaning on the background of economic change, many of the traditional approaches to management can no longer be applicable. Higher positions are not given to someone simply because of their hierarchy. Thomas suggests that currently, knowledge and expertise are prioritized (2007). Rao and Krishna define a flat management structure as a â€Å"structure characterised by an overall broad span of control and relatively few hierarchical levels† (2002, p. 357). In recent years, flat structures have been adopted in â€Å"response to the downsizing of businesses in order to increase efficiency and profitability† (Bowyer and Martinelli, 2004, p. 62). Communication takes a smaller route; the messages do not have to travel through larger levels and hence limits the chances of being distorted. Hierarchical management is associated with many disadvantages; as listed by Meehan (2013), communication across departments tends to be less effective, multiple layers increase the salaries at different layers of management, the organization speed is hindered and clients may take longer time before they are attended to, and there could be possibilities of rivalry between departments due to competition. Despite the disadvantages, there are advantages associated with it, but in overall, the disadvantages â€Å"far outweigh the actual and alleged advantages† (Diefenbach, 2013, p. 4). Hierarchical management structures need to be abolished in favour of the more modern management that accommodates creativity and innovation in workforce (Hinks, 2013). This is because the hierarchical management structures and the processes that it implements fail to properly handle change (Kott er, 2011). Case study The case study covers a story of innovation of masking tape as explained by Dawson and Andriopoulos (2009), There was researcher by the name Dick Drew in Minnesota working for a company called 3M which was dealing in sandpaper, one time while he was sent to a body repair shop to do some research on the new release of sandpaper, he found the workers being troubled by a bungled paint work, the workers were working with an auto body and thus they were applying one colour after another while covering the other surfaces with a butcher paper. The problem arose with the use of a very intense adhesive tape which would erase some of the paint job when removing it; this gave an idea to Drew, as noted down by Dawson and Andriopoulos (2009), Drew is suspected to have regarded this event as an ordeal, but went on with his sandpaper testing. After feeling the customers burden, he thought of having one that would be peeled off without affecting the paint so when he went back to his work at 3M, he started the project at their laboratory, the project did not pick up well and the company management directed him to go on with his normal duty while leaving the project, he did not give up rather he decided to keep working underground., It reached a point whereby the manager noticed that Drew was not complying to his orders but he did not summon him, the fortunate thing was that Drew was closing in on an innovation that was going to put the company on high profile. After some time, the

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Opinion- vs. Research-Based Resources Assignment

Opinion- vs. Research-Based Resources - Assignment Example The purpose of the scholarly articles is to publish the results of research mostly to professionals. The results of the study are organized in groups and discussed under a title. For instance the results published by Draper et al (2008) shows how the shift from managing illness to the promotion of health has taken place. It reports how the initiatives responsible for health and wellness have fared, the purposes for building of capacities regarding to health and wellness, range of activities targeted for the improvement of health and wellness, engagement of the enrollee as well as the investment payoff. The journal also explains the source of data as well as the implications. The purpose non-scholar articles are to report the trends in industries, practical advice as well as the news in the industry mostly to the audience who are mostly non-professionals. In this case, Schoen (2003) reports the trends in the health industry in different countries including Australia, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Canada and the United states and provide the news from those states in regard to health. It is now possible to conclude that both articles are valuable in terms of the subject area they cover. The subject which in this case is health is examined well enough through research which makes the articles valuable. However, the value of scholarly articles can be said to be more valuable due to their wide usage of literature review and the provision of references unlike non-scholarly articles which are rarely referenced. The value of the two articles and their credibility is significant since each of the articles have got its audience. They are therefore written for a purpose and to a specific target who are interested in the specific article. Another similarity is that they both fill the need for the country or rather language of the country. They both communicate in the language that would be effective to the

Monday, November 18, 2019

Pick one Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Pick one - Essay Example Paris has Gothic architecture that compliments its 24-hour scene (Strickland & Boswell 159). Found in northern central France with a climate of 77 Celsius, most of the city is mountainous. I also discovered that in terms of media and materials, Mona Lisa has pyramid design that has living surfaces and outlines called sfumato. The process includes aspects of both watercolor and painting with dimensions of 77  cm Ãâ€"  53  cm (30  in Ãâ€"  21  in). It calls for some tactical texture that is sensual. Light, therefore, is used by the artist sparingly (Priwer & Philips 122). I also realized that the period of painting Mona Lisa is during the Renaissance period in the 16th century when CUBISM was dominant as a style. It means the painting flourished between the 16th and 17th centuries under the political leadership of Francesco del Giocondo notably in Paris (Kemp 111). Alternatively, the visual elements that are retained from the past include the aerial perspective. However, those emphasized are the angle designs. I equally noted that there are subject matter in Mona Lisa such as surrealist allusions that enjoy the 3D medium to communicate the deeper messages. Therefore, if want to know the subject matter, you use digital platforms that embody avant-garde symbolism and patterns. I noted the use of poplar panel that ideally reflects the climate controlled conditions that are mean expand the patterns of scientific measurement especially the metal crosspieces (Priwer & Philips 124). Overall, I observed that Da Vinci was trying to tell the world different surrealist ideas concurrently with minimal use of objects, colour, and watercolour. In Paris, I chanced upon Da Vinci’s biography that he was born on 1452 in a peasant family in Anchiano and died in 1519 (Strickland & Boswell 155). His professional activities as an artist started actively in the 1480s when he painted Annunciation and St. Jerome

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Styles Of Furniture And Types Of Wood

Styles Of Furniture And Types Of Wood Though out the years there have been many different styles of furniture and the types of wood that has been used in the furniture. They range from mid-evil style furniture to the modern furniture styles that you see today. Some people may not know all the different types of furniture and that they are classified as ages, periods and some others as well. The term Age of Walnut is not so much descriptive but a way of dating furniture lasting for about 130 years. The improvements of the saws that were used to cut wood at the time may be a reason for the introduction of walnut. This made it easier for the pieces to be sawn to smaller thicknesses. As people learned to cut thinner slices of material, it became possible to use thin slices for decorative purposes. And because of this there were fewer things that were being carved into furniture. The Age of Walnut gradually gave way to a period in which mahogany was the predominant species used. The Age of Mahogany dominated much of the 18th century(Blackburn, Graham). Later on in this period the furniture was heavily carved and fretted furniture was the characteristics the furniture took on in this period in the time the cabiole leg was used. Later on in the century which is sometimes referred to as the Age of Satinwood, although mahogany continued to be very popular. One style of furniture that may not be well known now days is the medieval style. The medieval time period which was from the time the empire of Rome fell to the time Constantinople fell is where furniture took on it modern characteristics. In this era they focused more on textile. Light, portable, and served many purposes, textiles could be used as room dividers, wall hangings, floor or bed coverings, or protection from the cold. They used colorful fabrics to add brightness to rooms where they had no windows. Medieval furniture was primarily made of oak, since it was easy to obtain, strong and durable. The most important part of medieval furniture is the chest. Chests were originally made from hollow tree trunks banded with iron, which is where the word trunk came from(Medieval Decor). Hutches were used to store household items and other of the families possessions. When not traveling, the hutch was used for storage. Medieval home decor is again becoming popular They used tapestries and hangings to cover the walls matting for the floors, carvings or stencils in ancient heraldic designs(Medieval Furniture Home ). Medieval interior decoration is all about color and warmth, use of textures and textiles, and simply made, practical furniture. Middle age life was harsh but also had times of romance and excitement. French Renaissance furniture, including Louis XIII furniture, had gradually undergone changes until under the patronage of Louis XIV it developed into what was probably the most magnificent of the French period styles. Andre Charles Boulle was cabinet-maker to King Louis XIV and was one of the greatest workers in ebony, inlaying ebony wood with tortoise shell, brass and other metals until the whole piece came together to form a brilliant mosaic. He further decorated his work with chiseled mounts of ormolu and bronze, carved and gilt ornaments. Marble and granite were used for table and console tops, and fine tapestries for upholstering; all combining to create a style in perfect harmony with the pomp and glittering splendor of the baroque Louis XIV age(French Baroque Furniture) The Louis XIV style is marked by fine examples of craftsmen ship. The decoration was very detailed and very ornate. Tables of this era had feet and legs that were slightly curved. Common tables of this era were either round or oblong. Beds were used to hold elaborate draperies. A couch that was gilded, painted, and heavily varnished called lit a la duchesse came to be. Carved and inlaid panels were much used on chests and wardrobes, and there were many forms of chests and cabinets in vogue. One chest was shaped like a sarcophagus, after the Italian Renaissance manner, and was set on carved scroll legs, like a table, with drawers beneath (International Styles). A cabinet style that was common for this time had serpentine front a feet and panels that were carved. A common form of cabinet had a serpentine front and carved feet and panels, and was decorated with Buhl work. These, along with Louis XIV chairs are but a few of the numerous forms of the furniture that appeared during the Lou is XIV furniture period (International Styles). The French Directoire period went from 1793 to 1804 but people are not able to come to agreement on the end date. Directoire furniture reflected the effect of the French Revolution on French furniture design, being a more simplified version of the earlier Louis XVI style using limited decoration and cheaper materials. Decoration used on directoire furniture was usually a variation on the classically inspired ornamentation of the late 18th century. Marquetry was abandoned in favor of more austere forms of decorative work. Geometric patterns remained in use but were less extravagant than before, often integrating a Grecian urn into the designs. The caryatid form was also used. And we note the entrance of Egyptian motifs into furniture design. Furniture of the Directoire time sometimes included carvings of sphinxes in the bronze hardware detailing(International Styles). I feel that the Amish makes very high quality furniture that is reasonably priced and is made with a lot of attention paid to detail.For centuries the Amish have been known for their high-quality craftsmanship and superior woodworking abilities. They are dedicated to retaining a more simple lifestyle, reflective of the 1800s, and do not rely on modern conveniences and appliances. Electricity is generally not used in Amish homes(Amish Craftsmanship). In contrast to the low quality, mass-produced imported furniture used in many resorts and hotels, Amish furniture is extremely study and well built, minimizing the need for frequent replacement. It can withstand a long period of hard used a not need to be replaced. Amish furniture is never built in a factory or on an assembly line. They start out building it with air powered tools in buildings powered by generators but all the detail work was done by hand and was not the same from one craftsmen to the next. Although construction may vary somewhat by builder, Amish furniture is usually made up of solid wood with five-piece English dovetail drawer boxes and steel ball bearing drawer glides so they can glide easier. I fell was one of the periods of furniture where the styles and craftsmanship was better than any other style. The French Empire, also known as the first empire style was developed around the letter N and it was found in almost every piece. The style was designed to look like Greek and roman styles and it lasted through what was known as the Directoire period of furniture. England in the time of the Regency in American furniture. The style used a wreath, torch, Sphinx, the honeysuckle and the Roman eagle in the design of the legs of some of the chairs. Classic shapes or lines and classic decorations in chiseled bronze, called ormolu, were notable attempts in the neoclassic style. (International Styles) The subjects for ormolu decorations were taken from Greek mythology. They used brass as an inlet on some of the pieces of the Empire furniture. Marquetry and carving was no longer used and instead were discarded and plain surfaces were decorated with brass and ormolu mounts of antique emblems. Mahogany was the wood they chose to used and the also used a lot of veneer which is very thin pieces of wood placed on others to give the wood a different look. On some French empire furniture we also see fine turning, not spiral, but in a round style which can be seen in the legs of sofa on which Madame Recamier reclines in the well known portrait of her by Jacques Louis David. David, who was court painter under Louis XVI, became during the Empire era the prime influence and eventually a kind of artistic dictator of this movement to revive the classical. Throughout the years furniture has gone through many changes to keep up with the changes in time and people. The changes in furniture have kept up with the changing likes and dislikes of people from one country to the next.